290 EXTINCT GENERA OF CAMELS CHAP. there are more points of likeness to the ILama, in P, angustidens to the CameL In both, the orbits are completely encircled by bone. The nasals are much shortened. The odontoid process of the axis is still more concave than in Poebrotherium, but not spout- like as in existing forms. This fact shows that the spout-like character of the Camels' odontoid process is not a point of affinity to other Artiodactyles—in fact the occurrence of the same form of odontoid process in Perissodactyles is enough proof of this. "We must come to the conclusion that the form is adaptive in all eases. If we were not obliged on palaeontological evidence to come to this conclusion, the structure in question is just one which, would be fastened upon as evidence of genetic affinity; for it is a resem- blance in a small though distinctive point of structure having no obvious relation to utility. The metacarpals and metatarsals have coalesced to form the cannon bones, though a rudiment of one metacarpal seems to remain. The genera referred to appear to be on the direct line of descent of the modern representatives of the family. But there are other forms which are offshoots of the main stem. Such are &omocam,elit,s, JUschatia, and Ifolo- meniscus. The last two are Pliocene and American ; the teeth are much reduced. C. PECORA, The Pecora are a group which possess so many characters in common that it is not an easy task further to subdivide them. In all there are but two functional digits on the feet, and the metacarpals and metatarsals of these are fused. There are 110 upper incisors, and canines in the upper jaw are not universal, and generally small Horns are confined to this group of the Selenodontia,1 The premolar teeth are of a simpler form than the molars. The stomach has four chambers, of which two may be regarded as belonging to its cardiac half and two to the pyloric. The former are, in the first place, a large paunch or rumen, followed by a smaller reticulum, so called on account of the network arrangement of the folds of its lining membrane. Connected with the latter, and constituting the first part of the pyloiic1 half of the stomach, is the psaltarium or ** manyplies," so eaUed on. aocovmt of the longitudinal folds, like the leaves of a 1 Uatess JVolocerew (see j>. 2S4) was furnished witli boms.